Ref: Cary012, 1787, John Cary
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An antique county map of Durham first published c.1787, republished 2018. John Cary (1754 - 1835) was an English cartographer, engraver and map seller prominent in London during the late 18th century and early 19th century. Originally produced using copper plates, and fine engraving, Cary's maps are highly detailed and easily readable. Villages, towns, and cities labelled include Durham, Stanhope, Darlington, Newcastle, and Stockton.
Durham is a maritime county, with the priviledges of a pricipality, or county palatine, which, during the Saxon heptarchy, made part of the kingdom of Northumbrians. It is in the diocese of its own name, the province of York, and is included in the Northern circuit. It is 40 miles long from east to west, 35 broad from north to south, and 160 in circumference, containing 920 sqaure miles, or 588,800 square acres; divied into 4 wards, having 120 parishes, 21 viarages, 223 viallges, one city Durham, and the see of a bishop, which sends 2 members to paliament; and 9 market towns, viz. Barnard Castle, which gives the title of Viscount to the Vane family; Darlington, which gives the title of Earl to the same family; Stanhope which gives the titile to the faamily of the same name; Stockton; Sunderland, which gives the title of Earl to the Spencer family;Hartlepool; Auckland; Marwood; Walsingham; and Staindrop. Among thevillages, Lumley gives the titleof Baron to a family of the same name; as does Harrington in the same manner. The principal rivers are Tees, Tyne, Were, Tame, Lune, Derwent, Gaundless, and Skern. The most noted places, Sunderland Point and Hartlepool Point; the Tees Mouth and Tynemouith Harbour and Bar; the Lune and Tessdale Forests; Weredale, and several considerable Hills; Oxenhall Pits, with the Cataract of the Tees River. The soil is various, the fourth part rich, but the western rockish and moorish. It produces lead, abundance of coal, iron, excellent corn, and fine pastures; has extensive manufactories of glass, salt, mustard and fine ale. It sends but 4 members to parliament, viz. 2 for the county, and 2 for the city of Durham, as before mentioned; pays 3 parts of the land-tax, and provides 400 men to the national militia. The air of the county is healthy, but severely cold in winter.